Stainless steel.

Stainless steel has quite a complex composition, the main components of which are the alloying elements, wherein additional inclusions are chosen based on their ability to resist corrosion. Certainly, chromium must be present in the composition of stainless steel, as it is the main alloying component responsible for the ability of steel to resist corrosion. Niobium, molybdenum, titanium and nickel are typically included as additional elements. These components are capable of enhancing the corrosion resistance of steel. Percentage of alloying inclusions determine the corrosion resistance of steel. Thus, the content of more than 12% of chromium provides a corrosion resistance of alloy in mildly aggressive environment. If the same parameter is increased to 17% and above, the alloy is able to resist corrosion even in highly aggressive environments. When chromium is included into steel, a thin insoluble film forms on the alloy surface. This is exactly what protects the alloy from external influences that can cause corrosion. However, homogeneity of metal surface must also be taken into account. Moreover, stainless steel should not be prone to intercrystalline corrosion. Certainly, stainless steel has high qualitative characteristics. According to chemical composition, it is divided into three groups: chromium, nickel-chromium, and chromium-manganese-nickel steel. Each of these stainless steels is used in various industries.

Nowadays stainless steel has become a very popular material in production of various parts and products. Stainless steel forgings are mainly used in shipbuilding (shafts and drums forgings), hydroelectric industry (rotors), etc. Generally speaking, production of stainless steel forgings is required for various parts intended for operation in aggressive environments. Steel forging can be done by press and hammer. In first case, the forging weight varies from 100 kg to 20 t; in second case -from 3 kg to 100 kg. A forging is basically a workpiece of a certain part. The forgings are always subjected to further processing to achieve the desired size, shape and properties of the material. Shape of the part can be determined through mechanical treatment, while structure and properties of the material can be determined through heat treatment. In addition, the forgings can be subjected to various tests during manufacturing process, which determine their group. Calculation of the forging is carried out strictly with consideration of all details and parameters of the part, as well as all required tolerances and deviations. The price of stainless steel forging depends not only on the price of materials but also on the shape of the workpiece, the order volume, etc. The forging weight is determined by density of steel (in this case - stainless steel) and the workpiece shape.


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