Low-alloy steel.

As of today, low-alloy steel is a very popular material in metallurgy. Typically, it is used in heavy structures. As compared with carbon steel, mechanical characteristics of low-alloy steel are greater. This is due to the content of alloying elements in its composition. Steel is considered low-alloy if additional inclusions (other than carbon) do not exceed 2.5%. It should be noted that a particular component is considered alloying if its content in steel is at least 0.3%. Otherwise, it is not specified in designation of the steel grade and, generally, does not affect its qualitative characteristics. Molybdenum, chromium, nickel, manganese, etc. are considered alloying, and they are included into steel composition intentionally to increase its qualitative characteristics. Low-alloy steel grades differ somewhat in their qualitative characteristics depending on combination and proportion of alloying components in composition.

Currently, the production of forgings is hard to imagine without low-alloy steels. The part’s "layout", i.e. its workpiece is called a forging, which is only a preliminary result, as it is only a part of approximate shape and size. In any case, it is further subjected to additional processing to achieve the desired result. Heat treatment allows to change the structure and properties of the material, and mechanical treatment allows to change form and outline. The forging production is carried out by either pressing or forging. Steel forging can be carried out by using a press or a hammer. Pressed forgings minimize the time spent on production, and allow to manufacture parts of different shapes. In press forgings production, a workpiece can weigh from 100 kg up to 20 t, and in production of hammer forgings, the workpiece weight ranges from 3 kg to 100 kg. A forging is calculated on the basis of several factors: not only the parameters of the part itself, but also the necessary tolerances and deviations. The forging mass is a weight parameter, which is determined with consideration of steel density and the part shape. Production of forgings from low-alloy steels has a number of advantages. Firstly, low-alloy steels successfully combine ductility and relatively high strength. Secondly, mechanical properties of the parts made of low-alloy steel forgings are far superior to the carbon ones, while their value is not much higher. It should be noted that low-alloy steels are among the most sought-after in forgings production. The forging price depends on the cost of material, type of forging (ring forging, gear forging, circle forging, shafts forging, etc.), and the volume of the order.


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