Carbon steel.

Carbon steel is characterized by not containing alloying elements. In other words, the qualitative characteristics of carbon steel are not subjected to any changes through addition of corresponding chemical components (molybdenum, nickel, chromium, etc.). As for the concept of carbon steel itself, it can be defined as "iron-carbon alloy". Typically, carbon steel contains inclusions of manganese, phosphorus, silicon or sulfur. Carbon steel has a clearly defined classification, which is determined by the percentage ratio of carbon in its composition. Carbon steel is divided into three main groups: low-carbon (up to 0.25% carbon of total composition), medium-carbon (0.25-0.6% carbon of the total composition), and high-carbon (over 0.6% carbon of total composition) steel. With regard to the amount of phosphorus and sulfur in carbon steel composition, it is divided into fine and extra fine steel. Contents of additional inclusions in the composition of fine carbon steel is 0.03% (sulfur) and 0.035% (phosphorus), and 0.02% (sulfur) and 0.03% (phosphorus) for extra fine carbon steel.

Steel forging can provide various parts called forgings. A forging is an item with approximate shape and dimensions. This means that in order to achieve the desired result, a forging requires further heat and mechanical treatment. During heat treatment the workpiece is subjected to thermal impact which leads to changes in its structure and properties in a particular way.

Mechanical treatment includes physical impact, which results in changing the shape and outline of the part. Steel forging is done by repeated mechanical impact on a steel workpiece. Price of the forging depends on its complexity, order volume and material cost. Production of forgings means a subsequent change in geometric shapes and other properties of the product by additional heat or mechanical treatment. A forging can be produced from different materials, including carbon steel (both structural and tool steel). As for the price, tool carbon steel is cheaper, which leads to the low cost of the forging. Production of forgings as per drawings must be in accordance with GOST standard and regulatory technical documentation established for a certain type of product. The forging drawing is based on a drawing of the finished part. Furthermore, all necessary tolerances and deviations must be taken into account. The forging weight is determined based on its shape and steel density value. The forging calculation must be carried out with consideration of all parameters of the part, deviations and tolerances.

The forgings vary in cross-sections (round, square, and rectangular forging). The forgings can be produced by pressing or forging. As of today, carbon steel is widely used for forgings manufacture, which results from the fact that after the quenching process it is possible to achieve high hardness on the surface and sufficient ductility and viscosity on the inside. Furthermore, carbon steel is well treated during production of parts, as hardness is reduced during annealing.

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